The 50 years of Education Never Ends: The contribution of President Nyerere to the development of adult education and lifelong learning in Tanzania and globally

 Heribert Hinzen, Former Director, DVV International; Vice President, PIMA

The presentation will look at Nyerere with changing lenses on his influences and impact. With a biographical lens from a University seminar in 1972 on Nyerere and Ujamaa in Tanzania, my doctoral comparative dissertation Adult Education and Development in Tanzania, and during the time I had joined the Research and Planning Department, Institute of Adult Education, Dar es Salaam for the evaluation of the mass campaign Chakula Ni Uhai. In 1976 Nyerere gave the keynote Adult Education and Development to the first World Assembly of the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE) and became its Honorary President. ICAE by now is a global movement which has just been invited to contribute to the UNESCO Futures of Education initiative. Continuing with the professional lens I turn to my almost four decades of work for DVV International in headquarters, country and regional offices which included Tanzanian adult education as an important partner. Additionally, and globally serving as ICAE Vice President and Member of the CONFINTEA VI Consultative Group it was the period during which the Belem Framework for Action, the Education 2030 Agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals, and the UNESCO Recommendation on Adult Education emerged. Even today all these experiences impact my University teaching and research in comparative adult learning and education. As a member of the International Adult and Continuing Education Hall of Fame we nominated and inducted Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere in 2008 posthumous.

China's Current Rural Talent Cultivation Projects and their Lessons for International Community

Wan Xiulan, Zhejiung Normal University

Since the end of the 20th century, when the illiteracy rate among young and middle-aged people fell below 5 percent, the main task of rural adult education in China has transitioned to rural talent training. In recent years, “the Rural Revitalization Strategic Plan (2018-2022)” and “the Opinions on Accelerating the Revitalization of Rural Talents” successively issued by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, become the action guide of China's rural talent training. At present, there are mainly two kinds of projects to cultivate these talents, one is the High-quality Farmer Cultivation, the other is the Rural Revitalization Lecture Hall. The following lessons of the projects can be learned by the international community: (i) Initiated by the central government, the projects help to unify and guide the objectives and direction; implement coordinately of multi-departments of all level of governments; mobilize nationwide; strengthen the executive power, organizational and financial guarantee, and the incentive mechanism. (ii) The project plans are based on varies of rural surveys and researches by policy research offices of governments at all levels and by colleges and universities. It adheres to the democratic centralism in the decision-making process of the project, which helps to strengthen the program's purposiveness, scientificity, timeliness, practicality and focus on priorities of stage. (iii) The projects are supported by scholars, media and enterprises and the teaching method is a combination of online and offline learning, real-time audio-video review and on-site visit, which helps to strengthen the intelligent and financial support for the project, expand the channels of information dissemination, increase the scale, and improve the quality and efficiency of the training.(iv)  The classified training of rural management cadres, rural technical personnel, rural public service personnel and ordinary villagers helps to strengthen the effectiveness of the project, highlight the training of key talents, and strengthen the pertinence of the shortcomings of various talents so that they can meet their expectations.

Adult Education and the Globalized world 

George Ladaah Openjuru, Gulu University, Uganda

Adult Education and the Globalized world is about the confrontation and resistance of the negative impact of globalization in terms of cultural hegemony and dominancy, disastrous global diseases such as COVID-19 or Corona Pandemic which started in 2019 and intensified in 2020 literally consuming the whole of that year 2020, neo-colonial exploitation of resources leading to environmental degradation, racism and intolerance of differences, while taking advantage of the positive impact of globalization such as the sharing of knowledge and technological advancement for the good of humanity, racial harmony and the celebration of differences and diversity through the nurturing of different forms of know and ways of knowing. Adult education should lead to the emancipation of the world and humanity from the gripping claws of globalization which is profits, greed and excesses, thus leading to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).

DVV International in Tanzania: Adult learning and education system strengthening 

Frauke Heinze, Regional Representative East Africa, DVV International

The presentation will look at DVV International new cooperation with Tanzania started in 2020. Working closely with the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MoEST), which is responsible for overseeing the sector, integrated functional adult literacy is on the map - strengthening the coordination and streamlining of existing programmes to put a well-functioning adult learning and education (ALE) system in place. A system that provides complementary learning opportunities for adults in Tanzania, fosters their personal development and promotes a knowledge-based society that is able to tackle today’s challenges.

The project will draw on the regional experience in East Africa, DVV International has gained implementing ALE programmes in Uganda and Ethiopia. Two concepts will be highlighted - the holistic ALE system building approach which has been implemented in both countries in an action learning process. The model of Community Learning Centers, places where adults can access a variety of integrated ALE services, which has been piloted in both countries over the past years. 

Adult Education for Women Empowerment: Dreams and realities

Elinami Veraeli Swai, Department of Adult and Distance Education, Faculty of Education, Open University of Tanzania

The role of adult education in promoting empowerment opportunities among women is regarded as the most powerful tool to sustainable development. Empowered women build strong, powerful families, communities and wealthy nation. The paper takes a position that for adult education to promote women empowerment, it must be contextual, putting women’s needs and interests at the centre, while helping them to develop the necessary skills to become independent problem solvers and decision makers. The paper suggests that adult education in Tanzania, to some extent, has facilitated the process of women empowerment and thus, it is not a dream, but a reality.

Expanding Learning Opportunities through Open and Distance Learning

Elifas Tozo Bisanda,Vice Chancellor Open University of Tanzania

Access to tertiary education in Tanzania remains below 5% while averaging below 10% for the Sub-Sahara African region.  The capacity of higher education institutions remains low, and the cost of education in foreign countries is very high.  Open and distance learning (ODL), offers the only hope in increasing tertiary education access, because of its flexibility in terms of admission numbers, as well as its low cost of delivery. The convenience of learning from anywhere, at any time, has removed the barriers that adult learners constrained by work and family responsibilities, encounter when they go to conventional face to face institutions.

Prior to integration of ICT in learning, completion time of studies at the Open University of Tanzania, was very long where a three-year degree was taking an average of six years. However, this has been steadily decreasing. Recent years have seen the average completion time being cut to less than four years, with more than 50% of graduates completing their degrees within three years. The introduction of On-demand-examinations (ODEX), where learners can ask for exams whenever they feel ready, has sparked more vigour among learners, most of whom are second chance learners, to complete their studies in the shortest time possible.

The introduction of oral examination system (OREX) at OUT, appears to have been an ideal solution to the compliance with heath ministry guidelines for social distancing in this era of the Covid-19 pandemic. The Open University of Tanzania operates a unique assessment and examination system, providing a set up that meets all standards of confidentiality and fairness. Both the ODEX and OREX have enabled the university to expand delivery of its higher education programmes beyond the borders of the country (borderless education) without any limitations. Since its establishment, the OUT has graduated students from more than 40 countries worldwide. It has coordination centres in Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Namibia, Ghana and Ethiopia, with more than 1000 active international learners.

Milestones of Adult Education Since Independence in Tanzania:  Policy changes and their implications 

Gennes Hendry Shirima, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam


Emmanuel Benito Mng’ong’o,  Mkwawa University College of Education (MUCE)

Adult education has widely been offered by nations to capacitate their labour force and attain national developments. Being among the nations, Tanzania, ever since independence in 1961, has been steadily focusing on providing AE as a strategy to build the capacity of its labour force for immediate and future socio-economic returns. To this end, various initiatives have been put in place both in policy and practice. Consequently, tremendous achievements on AE were attained during the 1980’s. Notwithstanding, the country faced a relapse particularly in adult literacy in the later years, situation that has been associated with various socio-economic and political dynamics. Thus, this desk study reviewed various AE policy documents and the related literature to examine the developments of AE in Tanzania by chronologically tracing their notable milestones since independence to date. The findings revealed several achievements and challenges over each era of adult education development. However, a notable stabling challenge is the missing stand-alone adult education policy which has consequently compromised its practices in the sub-sector hence, unguaranteed progressive and promising AE developments in the country. Thus, the study recommends for more improved and standing alone AE policy, collective efforts by stakeholders, deliberate political will and commitment of the central administrative system to join efforts of reviving the sub-sector, which has been proven to have a direct and immediate impact on the national development.

 Keywords: Adult education, policy, milestones, development

Open and Distance Learning for Widening Access to Higher Education in Tanzania: Phenomenological study of blended learning programmes at UDSM

 Philipo Lonati Sanga, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam

This study is set out to explore the prospects and constraints associated with the implementation of Open and distance learning at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM). The findings from this project will facilitate the scaling-up of implementation of ODL programmes throughout the University. Specifically, the study seeks to: assess the modes of instructional systems of blended learning programmes at UDSM; explore the benefits gained from establishing and implementing blended learning programmes; and describe challenges associated with establishing and implementing blended learning programmes at UDSM. The study is anchored on the Transactional Distance Theory (TDT) (Moore, 1997) and employ descriptive phenomenological research design to collect data from students and instructors involved in the PGDE and PGDEM which are run by the School of Education and College of Information and Communication Technologies respectively. The findings from this project are crucial because they may facilitate the scaling-up of implementation of ODL programmes throughout the University.


 Teacher Education Curriculum and it’s Propensities for Competence-Based Education

Aurelia Kimaro and Albert Tarmo, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam

 This paper reports about a study that analysed Diploma in Secondary Education (DSE) curriculum to establish its tendencies towards competency-based education model. The tendencies of the curriculum and whether these reflect the basic principles of competency-based education are critical to successful implementation at classroom level. A Qualitative Content Analysis method was used to analyse purposively sampled DSE curriculum documents such as Curriculum for diploma in teacher education programme in Tanzania, Biology and Geography academic as well as pedagogy syllabi for diploma in secondary education etc. to establish the tendencies of the programme for competence-based education. The analysis established that DSE programme is characterised by a mixture of diametrically contradicting tendencies, some of which reflect the traditional content-based education and others were more aligned with the competence-based education model. We concluded that, by maintaining the tendencies of both traditional and competence-based education models DSE programme could self-constrain its implementation at classroom levels.

Keywords: Tanzania, teacher education curriculum, competence-based education.


Development and Effectiveness of Global Citizenship Education for Adults using Appreciative Inquiry

Jeon Only & Chang, Kyungwon, Kyonggi University 

This study developed a global citizenship education program for adults using Appreciative Inquiry (AI) and presented its expected effects. The main implications of the study included the observation that appreciative inquiry based global citizenship education gives adult learners a voluntary and active attitude to the community at their local, national and global level, and improves group identity. In addition, adult learners become the subjects that create a better world and future by discovering potential strengths and values ​​as well as rights and obligations for themselves. Furthermore, it was noted that the global citizenship education based on appreciative inquiry goes beyond simple problem solving to share mutually respected and discovered strengths through the learning process, thereby practicing adult learners' future-oriented behaviors and strengthening their capabilities. It was noted also that the global citizenship education based on appreciative inquiry develops into a continuing and progressive adult lifelong education for a common positive future. The global citizenship education program for adults that utilizes appreciative inquiry was also realized to be able to lay the foundation for the content and method of concrete global citizenship education for adults by meeting the goal of global citizenship education that emphasizes practice. 

Keywords: Adult education, global citizenship education, appreciative inquiry


The Importance of Group Physical Activities in Adult Lifelong Education and in Improving the Quality of Life

Stephen Mabagala and Devota Marwa

School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam

In the context of contemporary society, the concept of lifelong learning is acquiring a growing importance, being involved in many aspects of social and professional life, from retraining to personal development and quality of life. From the perspective of the quality of life, adult education must address the issues of leisure sports activities, particularly those carried out in groups. These types of physical activities, in addition to the physiological and motor benefits, have strong educational benefits related to the psychological and social domains. The current study, tried to address the ways in which psychosocial effects of physical activity group sports are reflected in the adults’ consciousness. A survey was carried out, where the subjects were required to assess the importance of physical activities on meeting some needs related to the multilateral development of the personality and the improvement of social skills that affect quality of life. Responses were single, closed, subjects scoring the degree of validity of each statement on a Likert rating scale from 1 to 5 (1 = no impact, 2 = minimal impact, 3 = medium impact, 4 = high impact, 5 = maximum impact). Findings indicated that physical activities for adult learners were important as avenues to satisfy various needs for adult learners.  Such needs included the need for movement, health care, fulfillment or satisfaction, the need for self-actualization, need for improving self-image and the needs for socialization. It was concluded that physical activities were important in improving the quality of life for adult learners.  It was recommended that physical activity sport programmes should be integrated in adult learning to improve their quality of life.

 Keywords: Group physical activities, adult lifelong learning, improving, quality of life


 Learning Opportunities for Marginalised and Disadvantaged Groups and Communities among the Adults

 Celestine D. G. Karuhawe, PhD Candidate, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam

This study examines the provision of learning opportunities for marginalized and disadvantaged adult groups and communities such as pastoral societies, people with disabilities, and communities living as hunters and gatherers in Tanzania. The study involved 15 participants and was guided by four specific objectives including, analyzing the extent to which provision of adult education to these groups and communities is a foundation for fostering economic development in Tanzania; and reviewing areas of adult education to be provided in teaching the groups and communities for their life advancement. The other objectives included highlighting suitable teaching and learning strategies in providing adult education for their clear understanding; and investigating essential teaching and learning needs in the provision of adult education for these people.  The study employed a qualitative approach and used semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions in collecting data which were subsequently analysed qualitatively.   The findings in this study indicated that most disadvantaged groups had no access to education. The study finally advises provision of adult education to disadvantaged groups and communities since denying them education slows down their participation in performing development activities for the country.


Gender Equality: A panacea towards discrimination on women education in Nigeria.

 Hafsat Abdullahi Umar, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria

Danlami Hayyo, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria

Education is universally acknowledged to benefit individuals and promote societal development. It produces significant improvements in health, nutrition, and life expectancy, and ensures political stability. For these reasons, the government in Nigeria makes the provision of education at the basic level free. However, despite government effort, gender inequalities remain a serious threat in the education arena. Girl-children especially those from poor families and those living in rural or remote areas, are denied of their right to education. Girls are less likely than boys to enroll in school, stay in school, or have their education completed. This is because their roles were downsized to child bearing, taking care of their spouse and children as well as managing other household activities. Hence the need for swift actions towards enlightenment campaigns particularly in rural/remote areas to redress the historical disadvantages that have prevented women from having equal access to their rights and privileges particularly in education. This paper argues that education can provide the necessary skills/competencies for girls to be able to contribute to economic and societal development. This is because education of women leads to a plethora of positive outcomes for women and their societies.

 Keywords: Gender equality, discrimination, women education


Lecturers’ Competence to Accommodate Students with Visual Impairment in Higher Education Institutions In Tanzania

 Samwel Vicent Tupa, Postgraduate Student, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam 

This study explores lecturers’ competence in accommodating students with visual impairment in higher education institutions in Tanzania. The study involved 34 respondents, including students with and without visual impairment, lecturers and experts from special education needs unit. Data were collected through interview, focus group discussion, observation, and documentary review and were analysed through content analysis technique. The findings revealed that lecturers were able to identify students with visual impairment in inclusive classrooms although most of them were not able to identify their unique learning needs due to lack of knowledge in special and inclusive education. Moreover, the study revealed that in most cases, lecturers used lecturing as the main teaching approach, though it was not effectively accommodating students with visual impairment. Therefore, it is recommended that the Tanzania Ministry of Education Science and Technology in collaboration with higher education institutions should review their teacher education programmes to include aspect of special and inclusive education as well as provision of training and workshops to lecturers on how to accommodate students with diverse education needs.

 Keywords: visual impairment, learning needs, higher education, teaching approaches.


The Employers’ Perceptions on the Employment of Persons with Sensory Impairment in Tanzania Higher Education Institutions

 Raphael Adam, Postgraduate student, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam

Mwajabu, K. Possi, University of Dar es Salaam

Sarah E. Kisanga, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam

This qualitative study explores the employers’ perceptions on the employment of Persons with Sensory Impairment (PSI) in Tanzania higher education institutions. The study, specifically, sought to examine the employers’ views on the work performance of Employees with Sensory Impairment in HEIs, and determine factors for low employment rate for PSI in HEIs.  Twenty-six (26) employers were involved in a semi-structured interview, focus group discussions and observation and thematic analysis was used to analyze data. Findings indicated that employers consider hiring PSI based on their productivity and good job performance. Moreover, employers perceive hiring PSI as a motivating factor to students with disabilities in HEIs and a need to diversify their workforce. Furthermore, the study established factors attributing to low employment rate of PSI as:  assumed costs associated with preparing accommodations, modifying their work environment to suit their disability requirement; paying for their personal assistants; employers’ negative attitudes towards PWDs; employers’ lack of awareness on abilities of PWDs as well as lack of professional qualifications among PSI. The study recommends for a need to conduct awareness campaign on capabilities of PWDs to reduce employers’ negative attitude towards them and preparing friendly working environment according to their needs.

Keywords: Employment, perception, sensory impairment, higher education, attitudes, disability


Impact of Entrepreneurial Education on Youth Readiness to Business in Kano State.

 Danlami Hayyo, School of Continuing Education, Bayero University Kano.


Auwalu Shuaibu Muhammad, Federal University Gusau.

This study explores the impact of entrepreneurial education on youth readiness to business in Kano State. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of entrepreneurial orientation (innovativeness, risk taking ability, proactiveness, autonomy and competitiveness) on youth readiness to business in Kano state. The study equally sought to explore gender differences in entrepreneurial orientation and readiness to business among youth in Kano state. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The population of the study will covered the NCE II & III students from Saadatu Rimi College of Education Kano state and the random sampling technique was used to obtain the sample.  Data for this study were analyzed using R

regression to examine the effect of the independent variables over the dependent variable and an independent sample t-test to examine differences using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).

Keywords: entrepreneurial education, youth, readiness to business.

Impact of Managerial Practices for Parental Involvement on Performance of Non-Government Secondary Schools in Dar es Salaam

Ibrahim Yunus Rashid, Postgraduate student, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam

This study examined the impact of managerial practices for parental involvement on performance of non-government secondary schools in Dar es Salaam to identify innovative approaches to teaching youths. It used a qualitative research approach and case study design method. The study revealed that effective managerial practices that schools can use to build successful parental involvement in education included  the parental involvement in school decisions, managerial transparency, servant leadership, effective communication, student-teacher-parent based activities, parent-school based social projects, parent-teacher meetings, school management information systems, home visits by teachers, seminars to parents and establishing parental involvement policies. Moreover, the study found that the other  managerial practices that hindered parental involvement in school affairs included the schools practicing rigid timetables, annoying administrative procedures, school invitations lacking motivation and poor organization of school systems. Furthermore, the study shed light on how managers’ practices through schools organized joint activities that involve parents eventually contribute in the schools’ performance. Activities such as open houses, assemblies, school tours, student presentations and performance, career days, outdoor events and bonanza and school boards were revealed and discussed. It was concluded that, managerial practices have a great impact on the attitude parents have towards school and that in turn has an impact on the student’s academic performance.


 An Analysis of Citizen Participation in Adult Education Programmes in Tanzania 

Ahadi Anania, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam

Citizen participation is a central aspect when it comes to success in the provision of adult education programmes. It has gained impetus in successful programme implementation and achievement. It is a key to programme relevance for learners’ citizenship and to their world of work as emphasized in the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal number four, as well as in the Tanzania national vision 2025. This study attempts to analyze the citizen’s conceptualization, awareness, and participation in programmes offered by adult education centres. It seeks to identify the nature of participation in programmes offered, and the approaches used in offering them. The study employs a qualitative approach, whereby a case study design will be employed to collect data from the field. Dar es salaam city and four adult education centres will be purposively selected. Documentary review will be used to collect data from documents related to programme planning, implementation, and evaluation. These will include plan documents, curriculum, and documents prepared by adult education instructors. Thematic data analysis will be used to analyze data. This study is expected to promote and sustain active participation of citizens through awareness rising among stakeholders on the adult educational programmes, and outcomes of adult education.

Keywords: learners’ participation, access, equality, programme sustainability, community development.


 Learning in Adult Education Centres in Tanzania: Learners motives, challenges and the need for interventions

Lulu Simon Mahai, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam 

This study explores  the adult learners’ motives and the challenges they face in the Integrated Community Based Adult Education (ICBAE) in Tanzania. It was basically qualitative and it employed the case study design.  The study participants were obtained through purposive and convenient sampling. The data were collected through interviews, observation and documentary review and were analyzed thematically. The findings indicated that the need for economic development, literacy skills, change of personal status, recognition and desire to improve social relations were the main motives for adult learners in ICBAE Centres. Moreover, the adult learners experienced situational, institutional and dispositional challenges which limited their capacity to explore their full potentials. It is concluded that ICBAE centres need to improve human, financial and physical support in order enable adult learners to attain their motives and develop potential knowledge and skills relevant for development.

 Keywords: Adult learning, Adult education, Adult learners’ motives


 The ‘O’ in the ODL: An analysis of issues and developments in open schools in Tanzania

 N’ana D. Mbunda, Institute of Adult Education, Tanzania

Newton M. Kyando, Open University of Tanzania 

Open learning practice in Tanzania can be traced backto Tanganyika times and colonial era.  An association of open learning as both a concept and practice with Tanganyika, colonial and recent era in a Tanzanian context is built on school system establishment. Open schooling has evolved over time from a sporadic setting to a regular framework of operation where learning was individual based focusing on 3Rs (Reading, wRiting and aRithmetic) as opposed to certification for formalization purposes. It is this formalization that brought in about open schools’ establishment in Tanzania. Open-schools is a new phenomenon that has developed parallel with the conventional education system. It is accommodating secondary education (i.e. lower and upper levels) under the coordination of the Institute of Adult Education (IAE). This coordination calls an extensive assessment to understand position of open schools in the development of education sector beyond basic education boundaries. This article will employ literature review method to explore policy issues and developments of open schools in Tanzania.  Open schools in this context are viewed as binding particles bringing together Open and Distance Learning (ODL) in one hand and adult education as field of studies on the other.  Discussion in this paper is expected to shade light on potential developments in both ODL and adult education in the contemporary settings. Two angles of recommendations are expected to base on policy direction(s) and areas for further research.


  Gender Gaps in Provision of Higher Education in Tanzania: Historical analysis of status and trends between 1960s and 2000s

 Thaudensia Ndeskoi, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam 

Countries in the world are struggling to achieve gender equality by closing gender gaps in the education provision.  Gender equality in education is at the heart of the human rights agenda, and the fundamental to achieving the transformational 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, numerous countries remain far from achieving gender equality in the provision of education due to several reasons. The paper focuses on the historical analysis of the status and trends of gender gaps in the provision of higher education in Tanzania between 1960s and 2000s. The review also sets out to investigate the kind of interventions that research evidence suggests that can lead to an expansion and improvement in females’ education hence deepening of gender equality. It employed a theory of change to inform the inquiry. Data from documentary search revealed that: firstly, females are more educated today than the past 50 years; secondly, females have remained less educated compared to men; thirdly, gender gaps widened as more males went to school with good progression than females hence gender gaps become more worse; fourth, females’ education and gender equality are affected by processes within and beyond education institutions. It concludes that improving females’ education is a moral imperative and an important drive for socio-economic development. Closing gender gaps in education requires developing equitable institutions that generate policies, budgets and plans that enable all to succeed.


 Participation of Communities in Community Education Programmes: Instigation and involvement in question

 Benjamin Mbughi, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam

Communities’ participation in learning processes is very crucial to ensure that knowledge, skills and competencies are acquired for effective performance of communities’ undertakings. However, the choice of what to learn to streamline with communities’ desires is more important than learning itself.  Thus, this paper examines the instigation of community education programmes  and the involvement of respective in Tanzania. The study employed qualitative dominant mixed methods research. Purposive and convenient samplings were used to capture data from 100 respondents.  Qualitative data were categorized thematically while quantitative data were tabulated, graphed in the form of frequencies as derived from responses with the help of MAXQDA software. The findings for this study revealed that communities’ needs were the main factors for instigating community education programmes by 83%. Further, the controversy was disclosed concerning communities’ involvement in choosing what to learn. 63% of experts from higher and middle authorities claimed that experts and leaders at lower levels were used to involve communities in selecting what to learn, while 56% of community members declared to be informed by their leaders about the available training but not in selecting what to learn. It is, therefore, recommended that for the best consequences of communities’ participation in community education programmes, a situational training needs assessment is vital.

 Keywords:   Community education; community participation; programme instigation; community involvement  

Entrepreneurial Intentions among University Students in Tanzania 

Simon Peter Ngalomba, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam

The entrepreneurial intentions of students across college campuses in Tanzania are not adequately investigated. This study therefore investigated the entrepreneurial intentions of final-year students from two college campuses of University of Dar es Salaam. The main objective of the study was to determine entrepreneurial intentions of students across different college campuses. The study was motivated by the increasing unemployment rate among university graduates in Tanzania over the three decades. The study was based on the theory of planned behaviour to explain the students’ intentions to start business in the future. The data for this study were collected using questionnaires, simple random sampling techniques used from final-year students. Cronbach’s technique was used to ascertain reliability of the instrument. The findings revealed that significant differences exist between graduate entrepreneurial intentions in the selected campus colleges. The study was limited to one university in Tanzania. Future research can be replicated in other Tanzanian universities.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intentions, theory of planned behaviour, university students


 Towards Raising the Voice of Marginalized Adult Female Domestic Workers in Tanzania Mainland

 Abdallah Nzowa, Postgraduate Student, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam

The practice of employing young girls for domestic works has been rampant in Tanzania for the past three decades. This practice is dominant in urban areas and mostly by employees or officials who spend much of their time in production activities. At different point in time, there has been a number of cases involving torture, harassment and deaths of female domestic workers, which, have been reported through radio stations, television, social networks and newspapers yet a number of these girls/ females have been voiceless and helpless. This paper secondary data by reviewing different cases related to oppression of female domestic workers commonly known as house girls which were reported in various local and national media. The study revealed that a number of victims of domestic works in Tanzania were disadvantaged girls who lack sufficient education, which could provide them with necessary skills and knowledge to better address their serious concerns against their employers/oppressors. Thus the study recommends that, adult education is the only holistic way to address the issue of oppression, injustice and victimization that has been affecting girls, parents and the communities frequently. The study concludes that, adult educational policy makers, planners, practitioners and other related stakeholders must take precautionary measures to conscientize, and emancipate marginalized females and young girls to become aware of their rights and responsibilities to rescue them from injustices, which has been prevalent to them.


 Adult Education Curriculum on Literacy and Numeracy Skills: A catalyst to achieving self-reliance

Eugenia J. Kafanabo, School of Education, University of  Dar es Salaam 

The introduction of adult education in Tanzania in 1970’s was one of the biggest steps in supporting the government efforts in educating its people after its independence in 1961. The initiative to provide literacy and numeracy skills to adults who did not have an opportunity to get trained in mainstream education, aimed at supporting them to be self reliant. This paper analyzes the curriculum prepared and used to educate adult learners on literacy and numeracy skills and how it impacted them in becoming self-reliant. The main objective of the study is to explore and analyze the adult education curriculum on literacy and numeracy skills and how it instilled self-reliance knowledge and skills to adult learners in Tanzania. Qualitative method is used by exploring all the methods used to train adult learners from 1970-1990. A documentary review will also be used to analyze all the curriculum documents that were prepared and used by trainers to teach adult learners so that they coud be self reliant. The data will be analyzed through content analysis. The findings inform educators on the content of the curriculum and strategies used in teaching and examples that were used to instill self reliance to those adult learners.


Guidance and Counseling Service for Female Postgraduate Students to Attain Educational Goals in Tanzania Universities: Adequacy, availability and accessibility 

Rushahu Bernadetha and Mkongo Joyce, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam 

Female postgraduate students in universities in Tanzania are unable to cope with university life due to a lot of stress related to psychological, social, emotional, personal and financial problems. The ability to overcome these challenges depends on the adequacy, availability and accessibility of guidance and counseling services provided to female postgraduate students in Tanzania. The main objective of this paper was to assess the adequacy, availability and accessibility of guidance and counseling services provided to female postgraduate students. The study was conducted in two selected universities in Dar es Salaam. The sample covered female postgraduate students, counselors and university management.  Qualitative data were obtained through interview, focus group discussion and observation. Data was analyzed through content analysis and eclectic theory guided the study. The study revealed that the majority of the female postgraduate students faced many challenges in attaining universities. The challenges were of different types, including: psychological, academic, personal, social, emotional, cultural, lack of guidance and counseling services, lack of resources and untrained counselors. The study concluded there is a need to create awareness on the adequacy, availability and accessibility of guidance and counseling services provided to female postgraduate students in Tanzania universities. The study recommended universities management to design policy and strategic planning for guidance and counseling services.


 Perceived Knowledge Transfer Competences of Management Consultants

Katalin Varga-Toldi, University of Pannonia

Management consulting services are intangible future anticipated “on paper” solutions. The functional image of consultants assumes that the client is a knowledge purchaser and the most important aspect within the client-consultant interaction is how clients gain, transform and apply the required knowledge. Applied method and set of tools which allows consulting team to be able to competently and successfully operate within the client organization greatly depends on the management of knowledge sharing difficulties experienced in a client-consulting relationships. Paper provides a systematic quantitative literature review of knowledge transfer research subject within the management consulting literature by execution of bibliometric meta-analysis of 354 scholarly articles written by a total of 527 authors in 163 academic journals from 553 institutions of 46 countries over the 37-year period (1980- 2017). Study delivers a comprehensive understanding of the intellectual structure of knowledge sharing theories in management consulting academic literature and provides an essential insight to this industry. Based on empirical qualitative data from 22 explorative in-depth expert interviews paper highlights what kind of knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer motivations are underlying within the buying organization at different hierarchical levels and how customers evaluate knowledge of management consultants. Results may deliver vital inputs for business higher education programs. Findings show that the required knowledge from the consultant firm was very differently perceived by client employees at different hierarchy level and so were their knowledge sharing requirements and their preferred ways to gain information from consultants. 

 Keywords: Management consulting, knowledge sharing, knowledge transfer


 Designing Education for Local Parliamentarians in Sweden:  Choices, dilemmas and consequences

 Daniel Biadh, PhD Candidate, Linköping University

The local democracy in Sweden is formally constituted through a parliamentary system where people elect their representatives in general elections. Persons becoming local parliamentarians should represent the will of the people in Sweden’s 290 municipalities. In this paper we explore a relation which has not yet received much attention in research, i.e., the link between adult education and the formal parliamentary system. We argue that we explore a key factor relating to how political subjects may experience, and later exercise, their role and power as democratically elected representatives. The paper focuses on two main arenas where non-formal education is being designed and organized for persons wanting to become or who have already been elected as parliamentarians, i.e., the political parties and the local municipalities. Empirically the paper draws on an extensive collection of material gathered within two research projects at Linköping University. This encompasses education programs from more then 260 Swedish municipalities, interviews with civil servants from municipalities and all eight national parties as well as a variety of documents.  A qualitative analysis of the data has been done to distinguish varying educational designs, different rationalities and identification of emergent patterns. Results indicate that much education is being organized for aspiring or elected parliamentarians, but the form, content and implementation may vary. When designing and realising this education, choices are made that represent different rationalities, various dilemmas are handled, and consequences arise that may affect the vitality and functioning of the local democracy.


 Psychosocial Factors as Predictors of Academic Self-Efficacy among Secondary School Students in Oyo State, Nigeria

 Titilayo Adeoye Ajadi & Ademola Ajani Adeleke

University of Ibadan, Nigeria              

It has been observed that self-efficacy is an important factor associated with the learning process. However, it was observed that peer influence and negative attitude towards schooling has resulted in indiscipline, low academic achievement, absenteeism and dropout among secondary school students in Nigeria. This makes it imperative to examine the influencing factors (peer pressure, locus of control, and student attitude) on self-efficacy among secondary school students. This study adopted the descriptive research design of the correlational type. A total of three hundred (300) secondary school students participated in this study using multistate sampling technique. Three research questions were tested and answered at 0.05 level of significance. Reliable instruments (Peer Pressure Questionnaire; r=0.86, Locus of Control Survey; r=0.88, Student Attitude Questionnaire; r=0.76, Self-Efficacy Questionnaire; r=0.82) were used in collecting the data. Data collected were analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and Multiple Linear Regression. It was discovered that there was significant relationship between peer pressure (β=.703), locus of control (β=.453), student attitude (β=-.210) and self-efficacy. Regression analysis revealed that the three independent variables (peer pressure, locus of control, and student attitude) jointly accounted for 54.5% (Adjusted R2=.545) variation in the prediction of self-efficacy. The strongest predictors of self-efficacy were peer pressure and locus control, followed by student attitude. It was recommended that school counsellors should counsel students on the need to develop higher academic self-efficacy other than just stop at the moderate level, as the higher level would bring about excellent results in their academics and help them throughout their life endeavours.

Student Mobility in Popular Education: On the Institutional and Historical Ties Between Folk High Schools in Sweden and Tanzania

 Henrik Nordvall, Erik Nylander & Sofia Österborg Wiklund

Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden

Historically, there is a strong transnational connection between popular education in Sweden and Tanzania. Not least, this is reflected in a flow of Folk High School (FHS) students from Sweden to Tanzania; a mobility pattern that, according to previous research, distinguishes itself from student mobility patterns of the universities (Nylander & Ahn, 2013). The overall aim of this paper is to relate the outbound student mobility ratio of Swedish Folk High School to university student mobility, and to reason about the institutionalized rationale behind the popular educational connection between Scandinavia and East Africa. Departing from previous research on the topic, we critically embark on a discussion on the origin of the institutional pathways that facilitate this (mostly one-way) student mobility pattern. Except from overall global processes, we argue that the emergence of these institutional pathways could be understood as the outcome of a complex interplay between three factors: (i) Political processes in the post-colonial Tanzania and ideological identification between strategic actors in Sweden and Tanzania; (ii) The anti-colonial struggles in Africa and Asia and the emergence of solidarity movements in Sweden; and (iii) The intersection of mission, international aid and popular education in the formation of Swedish national identity, as well as the role of popular education to “educate” the Swedish population in development issues.

 Education for All vs. Adult Education: Challenges and opportunities in Tanzania

 Gerard Masalago, Postgraduate Student, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam

As Tanzania geared towards becoming a middle-income country by 2025, numerous initiatives have been put in place including introduction of free basic education which allows increased enrolment. This qualitative study sought to: assess the inclusiveness of education in Tanzania; examine the Tanzania’s disadvantaged and marginalized groups in education; and explore the challenges and opportunities in adult education arena. Thus, towards inclusive and equitable education for all, the government is mounting learning opportunities to marginalized and disadvantaged groups and communities in Tanzania. However, it was revealed that mounting the learning opportunities has led to classrooms’ overpopulation, unsteadiness of teacher-students ratio as well as futile teaching, learning and assessment activities. And so, this is associated with only the inclusiveness of education, rather than equitable quality education for all, in a sense it is more theoretically based rather than practically oriented. It was concluded that, regardless of mounting learning opportunities, still there are claims of some marginalized and disadvantaged groups being left out of the education system such as unidentified orphans and young girls who are denied the right to rejoin public schools after pregnancy. It is recommended more schools to be built or adding more buildings in the already existing schools to combat overcrowded classes that jeopardize equitable quality education.


Movements and Continuity: The Role of Social Movements in the Long-Term Swedish Involvement in Tanzanian Folk Developments Colleges

 Clara Hyldgaard Nanka and Henrik Nordvall, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden

In this paper we examine the long-standing Swedish involvement in Tanzanian Folk Development Colleges. By doing so we so we also address the wider issue of how continuity in transnational engagement can be maintained in the field of popular and adult education during periods of significant political and ideological shifts. Folk Development Colleges in Tanzania are a clear example of adult education institutions that have survived dramatic fluctuations in political trends. The over 50 Folk Development Colleges (FDC) established in Tanzania during the 1970s, as part of the Tanzanian Government and President Julius Nyerere’s adult education policy and with the support of Swedish aid, have survived significant political changes in both Tanzania and Sweden. The Swedish aid to FDCs ended in the 1990s and adult education is in Tanzania today far from being a prioritized political area as it was during the 1970s and 1980s.Therefore, in addition to contributing to the existing knowledge developed regarding these colleges (Rogers, 2000; 2013; 2018), the study of FDCs and the context that surrounded them can also provide lessons of importance for understanding factors contributing to the continuity global solidarity and transnational popular education activities.


 Education Transformation and Prospects of Graduate Employability in Tanzania 

Ambrose T. Kessy, University of Dodoma

The employment for graduates of institutions of higher education in Tanzania has been a serious issue of concern for students, parents, the universities, the government and the general public.  With the rapid expansion of higher education in Tanzania, there is a widely shared concern that graduates face substantial difficulties in the job search and are often forced to accept unfavourable early employment. This paper argues that there is a need for a reconsideration of the structural relations between higher education and the world of work. Using a critical review of the available literature, the paper analyses the extent to which the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) foster competencies relevant for employment and work, and the extent to which these institutions care about fostering more “employable” competencies of their graduates.

Keywords: Education transformation; employability; university governance, university of the future; labour market


Women in School Leadership: A case of community secondary schools in rural Tanzania

 Joyce Mbepera, University of Dodoma, Department of Management and Policy Studies 

This case study examines the reasons for women teachers’ under-representation in leadership positions in rural community secondary schools in Tanzania. Literature indicates that only 18.7 % of women were heads in 2013 in the country. The study is guided by two objectives, namely, to find out the barriers for women teachers to occupy leadership posts in rural community secondary schools; and to assess the techniques used by women who are in leadership positions to occupy such posts which could help other women. The study adopted a qualitative approach involving 77 participants (7 women heads, 68 teachers, 1 REO and 1 DEO). The methods of data collection were interviews (with heads of schools, REO and DEO) and focus group discussion with teachers. Data were analysed thematically. The findings in this study show that there were few women in leadership due to lack of support from family and the society at large. Furthermore, poor working environments, witchcraft and superstitious beliefs were also observed to scare female teachers away from taking leadership posts in rural areas. Further, it was revealed that inappropriate procedures for appointing heads of secondary schools also cause women to be few in leadership. This calls for serious affirmative actions like sensitization programmes on gender equality which should be embedded in the education curriculum to make children aware from low level of education about the importance of having women leaders in secondary schools. Equally important, teamwork is needed to unlock the hegemonic culture that dominates Tanzanian societies.


The Folk Development Colleges in Tanzania: A research review

Helena Colliander, Division of Education and Adult Learning, Linköping University

The Folk Development Colleges (FDC) have played part in building the adult education system in Tanzania since the 1970s. The colleges were established by the government of president Nyerere as a result of inspirations from the Swedish folk high school system and they have survived a lot of changes, including a withdrawal from the Swedish donor and shifts from one ministry to another. The aim of this paper is to give a thematic overview of the research made on the FDC since 1970s. One of the main themes is the relationship between various national and international stakeholders. This type of studies, primarily focuses on how ideas are transferred and develop at a system level. Another theme is the achievements and challenges of running the FDC activities, particularly in regard to (non-)available resources. What is less researched, however, is the actual practices of the FDC. Since they are influenced by ideas and actors at the system level and conditioned by the local school community and the resources available, such a focus would contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the FDC as a whole.


 Illiteracy, Health Services Access, Utilization and Perceived Experience: A case of elderly health fee exemption policy implementation

 Joshua Edward, Institute of Adult Education


Stephen O. Maluka, University of Dar es Salaam

 The elderly health fee exemption policy requires the exempted elders to have access to and to maximally utilize health services, yet there is paucity of knowledge on the effects of illiterate old adults  experience on  access and utilization of health services. This study involves 902 respondents; 879 elders and 23 key informants involved in implementing the policy in Mbarali and Ubungo districts in Tanzania. Out of these,  330 (37.5%) were illiterate. 217 (65.8%) and 113 (34.2%) elderly from Mbarali and Ubungo respectively. Whereas the quantitative data were analyzed using STATA14 and SPSS 2, using the ordered logit regression analysis, the qualitative data were analyses using ENVIVO 12 to determine coding categories and develop themes. The findings in this study revealed that the rate of Illiterate elderly seeking non-communicable disease treatment at irrelevant public health facilities level was higher compared literate ones. Furthermore, the rate of illiterate elderly seeking non-communicable disease treatment at irrelevant public health facilities level was higher compared literate ones and the illiterate elderly were less likely to inform implementors on challenges faced in health services access and utilization. Not only that but also illiterate elderly were less likely to inform implementors on challenges faced in health services access and utilization illiterate old adults were less aware, poorly understood and misinterpreted policy criteria compared to literate ones.   It was concluded that elderly’s illiteracy affects policy awareness, understanding and interpretation of policy criteria that distorts elderly experience in health services aces and utilization in policy context and can contribute to implementations challenges that out of context for health fee exemption policy implementors to address.

Key Words: Adult education, user fee exemption, elderly people, health care services


Study Circles: The Kenyan interpretation

Nordvall, H., Wadende, P. and Amutabi M.

This paper presents the findings from a qualitative study with ‘Mazingira’ self-help group in Western Kenya who utilize study circles to learning and improve lives in their communities. The guiding question in this study was ‘what is the end product when different knowledge traditions and educational philosophies interact?  This paper uses interviews and observation schedules to examine the evolving nature of ‘We effect’ study circles from the time  it was introduced in 2014 as a learning tool by Swedish NGO active in environment conservation to the end of 2019. The findings in this study show that ‘We effect’ introduced this idea to the umbrella National ‘Miti Mingi’ group which, in turn, passed this knowledge to its affiliates, ‘Mazingira’. This interaction sees the interpretation of the study circles’ meaning and uses at various junctions as the knowledge traveled from the Swedish NGO to the local farmer and community member and how eventually this last person put it to use in their lives. The findings furthermore show that from the first contact point of this intervention to the community members who use it to improve their lives, the interpretation of study circles is shaped by different knowledge traditions and philosophies to name some; African traditional, English colonial and Swedish traditions and beliefs. This study is important to anti-colonial adult educators as it stresses the importance of acknowledging the agency of recipients of interventions that are developed and initially used with populations in the Global North.


 Cyberbullying among Youth in Higher Learning Institutions in Tanzania: An emerging ethical dilemma in the digital age

 Placidius Ndibalema, University of Dodoma

This paper explores the youth experiences on the prevalence of cyberbullying in higher learning institutions (HLIs) in Tanzania. Within this broad aim, the paper highlights various emerging forms of misconducts among youth as they interact with digital media. The study employed phenomenology qualitative design in which 44 respondents were conveniently sampled from two Universities to share their experience on being victims of cyberbullying. The narrative interviews were employed in data collection in which the respondents had to share their experiences regarding cyberbullying. The qualitative narrative analysis strategy was employed in data analysis. The findings revealed the prevalence of various forms of cyberbullying, such as boorish electronic messages, rumours and lies, phonograph, just to mention a few. It was also revealed that there is an increased virtual aggressive behaviour among youth due to an increased use of internet, digital devices and social networks in their interaction and lack of awareness on cybercrime policy. Victims reported various coping strategies on cyberbullying which include talking to peers and youth services department leaders. Others mentioned strategies include omission and blocking the communication or removing the bully from the social network group. The paper further reveals some constraints on avoiding cyberbullying which include lack of awareness on various forms of cyberbullying and low exposure to intervention strategies on the matter. On the whole, this paper interrogates the existing ethical dilemma among youths at the university and their future moral conduct the community. The paper recommends a multi-stakeholder collaborative engagement in enhancing critical awareness among youth on the proper use of digital technology for ethical life transformation and interventions on cyberbullying.

 Key Words: Cyberbullying, ethical dilemma, digital divide, misconduct


Validity of Indigenous Education in the Globalized World: A case study of initiation rites among the Makonde of southern Tanzania

Delphine Cosmas Njewele, Department of Creative Arts, University of Dar es Salaam

 Indigenous African performances such as rituals, storytelling, narrative, music, songs, dance, poetry, children games, plays and masquerade are historically used in instructing youths and familiarising them with values and socially required attitudes. Since history the Africans have been known to employ their traditional dramatic form during initiation rites when they wish to impart knowledge on matters of sex, parenthood and personal hygiene to novices undergoing initiation upon reaching puberty.  Traditional theatrical forms such as songs that feature dance and other codified social realities are also used to preserve and teach traditional laws, history, religion, health and hygiene. Thus learners are enabled to deconstruct their reality and arrive at recognition of hidden factors affecting their development as members in their societies. However, these indigenous educational values are placed at risk in the globalised word. The validity and usefulness of such education to the Ethics and moral of the youth and adults in the globalised world is at question. Following Paulo Freire’s critical pedagogy this paper uses Likumbi  and Chiputu ritual, young boys’ and girls’ initiation rites among the makonde of Mtwara in region southern Tanzania to examine the validity of indigenous education in the globalised world. The paper employs interviews, and focus group discussion to collect data. 


 50 Years of Adult Education in Tanzania: Facilitators and barriers on utilizing web 2.0 technologies for scholarly communication in adult learning programs 

Joshua Edward, Institute of Adult Education

Technology has transformed teaching and learning processes. Web 2.0 technologies remove barriers in learning as virtual knowledge transfer and acquisition supersedes geographical, climatic and infrastructure challenges in learning. This study explores the applicability of web 2.0 technologies in the adult education scholarly communications. The study adopted qualitative approach to research and gathered data from 20 adult learners from primary, secondary and college level as well as 3 tutors 1 from each level respectively from Ilala District using interview schedules.  The tape-recorded interviews were transcribed and themes were analyzed with the assistance of NVIVO 12 software.     The findings in this study indicates that both adult learners and tutors had low awareness of applicability of web 2.0 technologies for scholarly communication. It was further established that the most frequent used social media included Facebook and WhatsApp whereas the least used were LinkedIn and twitter. From the adult learners it was reported that the lack of awareness and challenges to identify credible sources of information hindered their desire to utilize web 2.0 technologies for scholarly communication.  On the other hand, some of the tutors reported the lack of skills to package and integrate scholarly materials and they had poor attitude toward web 2.0 technologies as the main factor hindering their application of web 2.0 technologies for scholarly communication in Adult learning programs.

 Key word: Adult education, web 2.0 technologies, scholarly communication     


 Reflections on the Effect of Non-Formal Education on School Learning in Tanzania

 Julius E. Chaliga; Nana Mbunda & Anathe R. Kimaro, Institute of Adult Education

In today’s world, the prevailing school experience force scholars in the field of education to rethink education and to move towards the revival of learning settings. Advancements in technology in today’s world furthermore present educators a plethora of tools and instruments for teaching and learning that are more advanced than ever before, but there is failure to engage students in making their better version of themselves. Despite the recent increase in accessibility to education in the Sub-Saharan African countries, children seem not to enjoy and the majority of them develop an attitude of disengagement. Although the lack of interest to formal instruction is reported national educational reports and studies, the non-formal education is growing and expanding as a “more powerful tool” of changing learning culture. Hence, this paper attempts to visualize how out of school learning could be adopted in the in-school system and if it could enhance the content required by formal education. The main question in this is to examine how closely related to learning outcomes is the choice of reframing school activities in a non-formal approach. Specifically, the paper intends to highlight the impact of non-formal activities on learning results. The study will be conducted in 5 open school centres in Ilala municipality. The study is mainly qualitative with some element of quantitative approach integrating descriptive survey and uses questionnaire as a main tool for data collection.  


 Crafting Innovativeness    for Youth   Entrepreneurship Development in Tanzania: Are graduates innovators or imitators?

 Paschal B. Nade, The Nelson Mandela Institute of Science and Technology

 Innovation is key to any successful start-up, growth or sustainability in enterprises. In this case innovation involves successful exploitation of business ideas and adding value to existing products or processes. Recently, Tanzanian higher learning institutions have witnessed an increase in its graduates. This graduate’s turnover has raised the problem of unemployment due to limited opportunities in the job market. This paper assesses the innovativeness behaviors of the graduate’s youth for entrepreneurship development. The paper employs a cross- sectional research design whereby a sample size will be purposively drawn from the graduate’s convocation books of the two selected northern zone based public universities Masters graduates Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology and Moshi Co-operative University. The data will be collected through telephone interview, focused group discussion and documentary review. Both inferential and inferential and descriptive statistics will be employed in analyzing quantitative data. Also qualitative data will be analyzed basing on subjective research paradigm.

 Keywords: Innovativeness, youth, entrepreneurship


 Constructing Multilingual Digital Identities: An investigation into grade II learners’ digital practices in relation to English language learning in Rwanda


 Rwanda has taken a strong move towards language-in-education policy whereby English became the medium of instruction since 2008.  The language shift occurred when the country had resolutely embraced ICT as one of the country’s key development plans.  The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the ways GradeII learners used digital technologies to negotiate multilingual identities in order to understand the implications for ESL learning in Rwanda.  This study was informed by post-structural theories of identities (i.e. Second Language Acquisition frame of analysis) as well as of Bourdieu’s theory of habitus, field and capital and was inspired by debates on digital literacies, multilingualism, and identity. Drawing on the qualitative and ethnographic research, the study investigated the learners’ insider views of affordances of digital technologies for language learning in a two high schools research site. The findings reflect Bourdieu’ notions as they show that the social dimensions the learners were involved in influenced their engagement with several digital technologies. The findings also generated insights into the learners’ construction of multiple, global digital identities and fluid - hybrid literacies. It was observed that the learners constructed a national language and digital identity by visiting popular sites whose medium was Rwanda national vernacular. Thus, there is a need to capitalize on integrating ICT in language teaching and learning so that learners can create their own learning space while constructing their digital identities.


 Every Adult Counts: Analyzing cultural practices against Adult with Disabilities to acquire Education

 Juhudi K. Cosmas, College of Education, University of Dodoma

 This is a qualitative study in which data are based on in-depth interviews with five (5) adults with disabilities, three (3) family members and six (6) community members as focus group discussion which involved 10 community committee members. The study took place in Biharamulo in Kagera Region, exploring how PWDs are marginalized and excluded, and the obstacles they face in fulfilling their right of education and what mechanisms might be put into place by the government, communities and families to better support education for all. Although there was elements of positive culture, the study has highlighted that traditional culture still promotes certain beliefs, values, attitudes and practices about adults with disabilities that lead to discriminatory practices in provision of social services especially education. The study concludes with argument that the negative cultural beliefs and practices should be significantly denounced because they are against dignity, personhood and life of individuals with disabilities. To ensure that persons with disabilities are treated fairly and to combat stereotypes, prejudices and harmful practices relating to individuals with disabilities, the combined efforts between government and other community based organisations become imperative. Such efforts should target harmful traditional cultural beliefs and practices which are discriminatory against individuals with disabilities.

 Keywords: Culture, disability, education, adults


 An Analysis of the Adult Education Programmes Implemented by Institute of Adult Education, Tanzania

 Ahadi Anania, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam

Anathe R. Kimaro & Bernadetha B. Kapinga, Institute of Adult Education

 Globally, adult education has widely been regarded as having a responsibility in contributing to social equality by serving educational opportunities to the elderly, the poor, women, the handicapped, the minorities who are deprived of educational opportunities. Along with the equality perspective, globalization and the notion of knowledge society also attribute special attention and meaning to adult education. As the knowledge society is widely based on scientific knowledge, the higher learning institutions has a role in meeting the needs of industrialization and offer educational services to increase level of educatveon for the whole society and lifelong learning has become one of the major focuses of higher learning institutions in the new learning market. To serve such educational opportunities, the Institute of Adult Education (IAE) has designed various adult education programmes for adults. Hence, the paper sought to assess the characteristics of the programs conducted by IAE, to unveil whether these programs serve for quality. In addition, the curricular prepared were analyzed in terms of objectives, content, teaching-learning processes, and measurement and evaluation. In this study a case study design was used to guide the study. Criterion purposive sampling technique was used to obtain a total of 38 respondents. Interview and documentary review were used to collect the relevant data. The study revealed that most of adult education programmes were developed after conducting a through need assessment and hence, serve the purpose of the targeted group.  The study unveiled that most of the adult education programmes offered covered all three domains of development i.e. cognitive domain, psychomotor domain and affective domain. Hence, these programme are prepared and offered by taking the adults’ need into consideration, which can be stated as an institutional achievement against adult education. Conclusively, IAE programmes if well implemented could help to move the ground of illiterate youth and adults by revamping literacy and improve their economic well being.

 Keywords: Lifelong learning, professional development, curriculum, adult education


 Reflecting on Female Learners Portfolios in Selected Non-Formal Ordinary Secondary Schools in Korogwe District, Tanzania

Anathe R. Kimaro and Mwajuma Mohamed, Institute of Adult Education, Tanzania

In recent years, non-formal ordinary secondary education has received much recognition as one of the suitable forms of education to people who missed out chance to attend formal education system due to various reasons. Due to its flexibility and accessibility, it has attracted many out of school learners. Hence, this study sought to examine the constraints encountered by female learners in accessing non-formal ordinary secondary education and what providers of non-formal ordinary secondary schools have put in place to ameliorate the constraints. The study was undertaken at Korogwe district in Tanga region covering three open school centres. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to select the three open school centres and respondents. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used, employing the use of focused group discussion and questionnaire guide to collect data. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and the thematic approach. Findings indicate that many factors in the individual, psychological, centres, home and circumstantial environments impede participation and performance of female adult learners in accessing and being retained in their much desired non-formal ordinary secondary education level. The study concluded that, despite that female participation in non-formal ordinary education was affected by an interplay of various constraints, however, there was less effort from providers to help the female students to overcome the constraints.

Key words: Non-formal education, ordinary secondary education, open school


Scaling-up Capacity of Higher Learning Institution in Preparing Quality Adult Educators in Tanzania

Mugabe Mtani, Anathe R. Kimaro & Bernadetha B. Kapinga, Institute of Adult Education

 Preparation high quality adult educators is important in supporting government efforts to address development challenges in Tanzania. However, for most higher learning institutions, adult education is not practical enough to turn their local environmental resources into effective contribution to address adult education related development challenges. This study sought to examine the capacity of higher learning institutions in the preparation of quality adult educators in the country. The study was conducted in two institutions namely the University of Dar-es-Salaam and the Institute of Adult education. The study adopted a qualitative phenomenology design. The Purposive and snowballing techniques were used to obtain a sample size of 60 respondents in categories of 8 instructors, 2 heads of departments and 40 student teachers taking adult education courses and 10 adult education alumnae. The findings unveiled that one visited higher learning institution had large number of lecturers and few professors while another sampled higher learning institution had only assistant lecturers. Subsequently, due to shortage of qualified adult education professional in one sample higher learning institution, some of the academic staff who were not adult educators by profession were teaching adult education courses/modules.  In addition, the study disclosed that graduate adult educators acquired knowledge and skills on adult literacy class facilitation and management of adult education programme.  It was concluded that, some of the adult educators were half-cooked as they were taught by unqualified instructors. 

Keywords: Adult education, higher learning institutions, Adult Educators


Revisiting Formal Education Provision for Pastoral Groups in Tanzania: A review of literature

Adella Raymond, Mkwawa University College of Education

Education provisions for the minorities and marginalised groups is at the heart of international agenda for three decades now. It is particularly a point of emphasis in most of the international forums such as Education for All (EFA) movement, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the 2030 SDGs agenda. To date the pastoralists, remain among the minority groups which have not had full access to education. This paper reexamines formal education provision for pastoralists in Tanzania. It addresses the questions about pastoralists’ understanding of formal education, the relevance or value of formal education to their daily lives and policy considerations in providing education for pastoralists. Post-colonial theory informs the theoretical discussion of the findings. Data for this study were collected using a documentary review and analysed using content analysis. The analysis show that, although pastoralists are generally perceived not to accept formal education, they have recently changed and understand the value formal education in their lives. It is also observed that, although pastoralists are mentioned in the general Tanzania education policies; there is no specific policy consideration that provides for their contextual needs.   The paper argues that for fully realization of Education for All in Tanzania, specific consideration is required for the pastoralist, both in the policy and practice of education provision at all levels. The study recommends that strategies and polices for education provision should consider specific contextual circumstances that effect their receipt of education.


Distance Learning in Prisons: Perspectives on expanding educational access to marginalised prisoners

Mohamed Salum Msoroka, The Open University of Tanzania

Prisoners are considered to be one among the most marginalised groups in the widening access issues. This could arguably be the main reason for most prisoners worldwide, to have lower levels of education and work skills than the general population of any country. With such a low level of education and work skills, when they are released from prisons, they fail to cope with the society and revert to offending. By considering the said status of prisoners, this study investigates the ways learning opportunities could be expanded for them. The key question in this study is to assess how relevant does the ODL system in expanding education opportunities for Tanzanian prisoners? Through a qualitative approach and discourse analysis, this study collected and analysed relevant documents. The total institution and distance learning perspectives were also useful in guiding the analysis of data gathered and the discussion. Given the prison context, this study suggests that ODL can be the best approach to expand education to the marginalised prisoners. The assumption here is that the provision of education to them through ODL can help and become productive as far as social being is concerned, hence avoid reoffending behaviour. Thus, this article calls for both single mode open and distance and dual mode learning and a collaboration between the Prisons and ODL intuitions in developing relevant ODL programmes for prisoners.

 Keywords: Open and distance learning, prison education, lifelong learning, adult education, expanding education opportunities


 Fifty Years of Adult Education in Tanzania: Lessons towards a middle-income Country by 2025

Godfrey Magoti Mnubi

Institute of Adult Education


Fidelice Mbaruku Mafumiko

Chief Chemist’s Office

 As Tanzania celebrates fifty years of adult education, the country has experienced a changing landscape and major transformations in adult education, with greater priority being given to looking at adult learners' roles in the global marketplace. This paper examines the multitude of socio-economic changes that have faced youth and adult literacy education since 1970s, how policies and practices affecting adult literacy have evolved over time and to what extent the international and national contexts have affected the development of literacy education policies and practices in Tanzania. Twenty-three archival documents were analyzed from the 1970s to the present. The researchers also conducted open- ended in-depth interviews with two adult literacy coordinators, two adult literacy learners and three literacy experts lasting 1-2 hours to explore their perspectives on the transformation and prospects of literacy education in Tanzania. The study highlights the need for young people and adults to constantly up-date their literacy skills so that they may be able to function effectively in society and serve as important stakeholders to ensure that the fulfilment of country’s agenda of becoming a middle-income country by 2025. To promote an increase in literacy skills requires investing more financial and non-financial resources in literacy teaching and learning facilities and increasing political awareness of and commitment to literacy education to ensure that all young people and adults achieve relevant and recognized proficiency levels in both basic and functional literacy skills.

 Keywords: Adult education; Adult literacy; adult and non-formal education; sustainable development.


Teachers’ Reflections on Parental Involvement in Emergent Literacy Development in Rwanda

 Pierre Canisius Ruterana, University of Rwanda

 The present study examines the reflections of teachers in nursery and lower primary schools on parental involvement in emergent literacy with the overarching aim to gain knowledge on developing children’s emergent literacy in Rwanda and other countries with similar challenges. Early literacy development issues in Rwanda constitute indeed a bone of contention among education stakeholders, i.e. parents, pupils and students, teachers and political authorities with regard to the rhetoric of low literacy levels and a poor or simply a lack of reading culture among Rwandans in general. It is only of recently that early childhood education policies which acknowledge emergent literacy and prioritize nursery education have been introduced in the Rwandan education system. Qualitative data were collected via an open ended questionnaire and in-depth interviews involving 24 participants, including 13 teachers of nursery schools and 11 teachers of lower primary schools from both urban and rural settings. The findings indicate that teachers in nursery and lower primary schools generally emphasize the necessity of involving the parents more in the creation of a conducive environment that nurtures the children’s emergent literacy. At the same time, the study suggests that the emergent literacy development is a shared responsibility translated into a teacher-child-parent-society partnership for children’s success at school, adult literacy and later lifelong learning.

Keywords: Parental involvement; emergent literacy; nursery school; lower primary school; early childhood education; reading culture; lifelong learning


 Milestones in Tanzanian Adult Education: What made it possible amidst challenging setbacks?

George Kahangwa, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam

Upon attainment of independence of Tanganyika in 1961 and thereafter the unification that brought Tanzania into existence, the country embarked on strategic offering of adult education to a then senior but predominantly illiterate populace. What was initially a simple literacy and numeracy programme for adults, culminated into a wider subsector with a smorgasbord of purpose. Today the diversity of adult education is manifested into programmes such as COBET and IPPE. Based on a Meta analysis of literature, this paper highlights the milestones of achievements for the past 50 years, what made it happen and what acted as setbacks against what could have been excellent performance. The analysis will also serve the purpose of shedding light on what should be done from now on.


Community Education and Microcredit Accessibility for Financial Empowerment and Entrepreneurship Knowledge Enhancement of the Poor Communities: A comparative study between Uganda and Indonesia 

Wamaungo Juma Abdu, Kyambogo University

 Mustofa Kamil, Elih Sudiapermana, Nike Kamarubian Sardin, Jajart S Ardiwinata, Ihat Hatimah, and Uyu Wahyudi,

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia,

This study focuses on community education and microcredit accessibility for financial empowerment and entrepreneurship knowledge enhancement for sustainable income development among the poor. A comparative study was conducted to examine the contribution of a combined approach to the empowerment of the poor both financially and in knowledge and skills in both Uganda and Indonesia. The authors examined four microfinance institutions, taking two from Indonesia and two from Uganda. These microfinance institutions had many things in common, they are faith-based, they use community education and microcredits as an approach to empowerment and poverty alleviation and they distribute funds through circles.

Keywords: Business knowledge for the poor, community education, disadvantaged community groups, entrepreneurship knowledge, finance accessibility, microcredit and sustainable adult education


Defying the Odds to Learn Innovative Farming Practices in Uganda: Small-scale farmers’ experiences

Michael David Sumani, PhD Candidate, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam

 This paper presents evidence generated through a qualitative case study conducted in Bududa district in Uganda. The purpose of the study was to investigate the strategies learned by farmers to navigate their way through the challenges of achieving innovative farming practices. Through interviews and FGDs, data were collected from 22 crop farmers from the area of study. The social cognitive theory was adopted as the blueprint for the study. The findings of the study revealed that learning from fellow farmers, experts, a unit on the farm and indigenous knowledge systems enabled farmers to cope with the challenges they faced. The analysis and discussion of the findings led to some recommendations. Key among them was that the agencies offering agricultural extension services ought to integrate innovative learning approaches in order to facilitate effective development of innovative farming skills among farmers. Therefore, the study makes a pedagogical contribution to the debates on approaches to effective farmer education. 

 Keywords: Adult learning, innovative farming practices, small scale farmers


Linking Technical Institutions and Extractive Industries in Developing Practical Skills of Graduates: Opportunities and constraintsKenneth Raston Nzowa, Mineral Resources Institute University of Dar es Salaam

Aneth Komba, Tanzania Institute of Education,


Blackson Kanukisya, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam

 This study investigated the opportunities available and constraints in linking technical institutions and extractive industries in developing practical skills of young and adult graduates in Tanzania. Data collection involved a total of fifty- five participants constituting twenty one trainees, twelve trainers, and three principals/deputy principals. Other participants included fifteen officials from extractive industry firms, three from regulatory body for technical institutions and one industrial association in Tanzania. Data were collected using documentary reviews, interviews and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The findings indicated the presence of regulatory agencies for TET and policies on local contents were perceived as opportunity for linkage growth.  Constraints facing linkages were bounded around organisational capability and readiness to work together with other organisations in external environment. On the other hand, the progressive expansion of technical institutions, skill supply and demand environment of the country and presence of formulated legislation and regulations without remarkable enforcement by the government threaten the viable linkages. Given the actual situation of linkages of technical institutions and extractive industry, benefits of linkages might not be realized. On the basis of the findings, the study recommends the government intervention on enforcing and fostering the linkages through intermediary actions and creation of institutional environment for effective participation of key stakeholders in developing practical skills of graduates as the employers’ organizations, trade unions and employee associations are still frail.


Stakeholders’ Perceptions of the Use of English as a Medium of Instruction in the Acquisition of Vocational Skills: The case of vocational training centres in Morogoro region 

Wadrine Maro, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam

The aim of the study was to investigate Stakeholders’ perceptions of the use of English as a medium of instruction in the acquisition of vocational skills. Vocational and education training generally has been given important consideration towards addressing the urgent needs of workforce in the industrial sector and other socioeconomic activities. The Tanzanian Government has made an effort including an introduction of Vocational and Education Training Act of 1994 which established management, administration and financing of Vocational and Education Training provision. This study was guided by two main objectives which are: to assess vocational trainees’ ability to use English language as a medium of instruction in enhancing acquisition of vocational skills and to explore stakeholders views on the use of English language as a medium of instruction in vocational training centres. The study was conducted in four vocational centres in Morogoro region and employed mixed methods research approach informed by the descriptive case study design. The sample of the study included 152 respondents obtained through purposive and stratified sampling techniques. Data was collected through questionnaires, interviews, observations and documents. The data were analysed through content analysis and supported with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Findings of the study revealed that there was ineffective mastery and use of English as language of instruction among trainees for skill acquisition. Ineffectiveness was evidenced in aspects of English language such as; vocabulary, grammatical structure, spelling, fluency, code switching and code mixing. Furthermore, the study revealed that stakeholders preferred English language to remain as a medium of instruction in enhancing skill acquisition among vocational education trainees. The study concludes that English language ability of vocational education trainees does not support the full acquisition of vocational skills. Thus, the study recommends the establishment of English language programme to facilitate language skills to trainees for effective mastering of vocational skills. 

Keywords: English medium of instruction, vocational training, vocational skills, 


Folk development colleges for community Development in Tanzania: Asset or liability?

Mpoki Mwaikokesya, School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam

The place and role of education and training for both developed and developing nations has been and is still one of the key issues in the educational priorities today. Historically, almost all of the current advanced nations have taken education and training seriously as one of the fundamental routes towards their advancement due to an assumption that they would enrich the human capital and citizen productivity. In developing nations such as Tanzania, education and training has been depended upon as a vehicle towards national and individual transformations. Access to education and training have been considered essential for improved economic outcomes and as a foundation for social and economic well-being of the society and future generations. They are key to enhancing and consolidating one’s vitality in terms of enhanced technical know-how as well as improvement of productivity and can result into an added advantage for transformation of individuals and communities. In Tanzania, given the persisting high demand and a huge skills gap in terms of qualified human capital including skilled and qualified technicians, entrepreneurs, technicians and tradesmen, the government established the Folk Development Colleges (FDCs) in 1975 as a means for equipping people with skills required for a successful community transformation. However, since their establishment in Tanzania, FDCs have gone through many milestones and turbulent situations a situation which have generated many debates as to whether or not they are still worth existing and if they should still be given a national priority. Whereas for some the FDCs have been considered a liability, for others they are viewed as assets that need to be cherished. This paper uses a documentary review method together with interview with 20 participants from 5 FDCs in Tanzania to critically examine the position of FDCs in the country, thereby examining their potentiality whether they are assets or a millstone.

Keywords: Education and training, skills development, youths, colleges, education, rural development




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